From ARPA to Web3

The Birth of the Internet: A Prequel to the Web

Before the World Wide Web revolutionized how we interact with the internet, there was a fascinating series of developments that laid the groundwork for this transformative technology. In this prequel, we’ll journey back to the early days of the internet and explore the key milestones that paved the way for the web as we know it today.

The story of the internet begins in the 1960s, during the Cold War. The U.S. Department of Defense, through its Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), was interested in creating a resilient, decentralized network that could withstand a nuclear attack. This led to the development of the ARPANET, the precursor to the modern internet.

ARPANET was a pioneering packet-switched network that connected computers at different universities and research institutions across the United States. The first ARPANET message was sent in 1969 from a computer at UCLA to one at Stanford. This moment marked the birth of a new era in communications.

Throughout the 1970s, ARPANET grew and evolved. Key protocols that still underpin the internet today were developed during this time. For example, the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was introduced in 1971, enabling users to transfer files between computers. The Telnet protocol, which allowed users to log into remote computers, was also created in the early 1970s.

A major milestone occurred in 1972 with the introduction of electronic mail, or email. Ray Tomlinson, a programmer working on ARPANET, created the first email program and established the “@” symbol for separating usernames from domain names in email addresses. Email quickly became the killer app of the early internet.

As the 1970s progressed, the need for a standard way for networks to communicate with each other became clear. This led to the development of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), a suite of communication protocols that define how data should be packaged, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received. TCP/IP was adopted as the standard for ARPANET in 1983, and it still forms the core of the modern internet.

The 1980s saw the birth of the “internet” as we know it, as TCP/IP allowed different networks, including ARPANET, to be interconnected. The term “internet” was coined to describe this network of networks.

During this decade, the internet began to expand beyond its roots in academia and the military. NSFNET, a network established by the National Science Foundation, became a major backbone of the internet, connecting academic institutions across the United States. Commercial entities also began to connect to the internet, though commercial use was initially restricted.

The late 1980s and early 1990s brought several developments that set the stage for the Web. The Domain Name System (DNS) was introduced in 1983, allowing the use of domain names (like instead of numerical IP addresses. Gopher, a protocol for distributing documents over the internet, was released in 1991, demonstrating the potential for information sharing over the network.

But the true turning point came in 1989, when Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist at CERN, proposed a new way of linking and accessing information over the internet. His idea was to use hypertext to allow users to browse and navigate between documents. This was the birth of the World Wide Web.

Berners-Lee created the first web browser and server in 1990, and in 1991, he made the World Wide Web available to the public. The first website, which described the World Wide Web project itself, went live in August 1991.

From there, the Web took off, with the number of websites growing from a handful in 1991 to over 1,000 by 1994. The release of the Mosaic web browser in 1993 was a key milestone, as it was the first browser to display images inline with text, making the Web much more visually appealing and intuitive to use.

As the 1990s progressed, the Web exploded in popularity. Companies rushed to set up websites, e-commerce began to emerge, and the dot-com boom (and eventual bust) took hold. By the end of the decade, the Web had become an integral part of modern life.

But none of this would have been possible without the groundbreaking work done in the decades before on the internet itself. From the early days of ARPANET to the development of crucial protocols like TCP/IP, FTP, and DNS, the internet laid the foundation for the Web and all the incredible innovation that followed.

As we look back on this history, it’s clear that the internet and the Web were not inevitable. They were the result of dedicated work by visionary scientists, engineers, and programmers who saw the potential for transforming how we communicate and share information. Their legacy continues to shape our world today, as the internet and the Web continue to evolve and drive innovation in all aspects of our lives.

As the 1990s progressed, the Web exploded in popularity. Companies rushed to set up websites, e-commerce began to emerge, and the dot-com boom (and eventual bust) took hold. By the end of the decade, the Web had become an integral part of modern life.

The Rise of Early Online Services: Prodigy and AOL

But before the World Wide Web took the internet by storm, a new kind of online experience was emerging in the form of early online services like Prodigy and America Online (AOL). These services provided a glimpse of the social and interactive potential of online platforms.

Prodigy, a joint venture between IBM and Sears, launched in 1984. It offered a range of features, including email, message boards, and online shopping. The message boards were particularly noteworthy, as they allowed users to post and interact with each other in a manner similar to modern online forums.

AOL, which began as Quantum Computer Services in 1985, became a household name in the early 1990s. It provided a user-friendly interface for a variety of online activities, including email, chat rooms, message boards, and online gaming. AOL’s chat rooms were especially popular, allowing users to engage in real-time conversations with others who shared their interests.

These early online services were significant because they introduced many people to the concept of online social interaction and user-generated content. While the interactions were largely confined within each service’s proprietary platform, they foreshadowed the more open, web-based social media that would emerge in the Web 2.0 era.

Moreover, services like Prodigy and AOL played a key role in popularizing the internet itself. By providing an easy-to-use, all-in-one package for accessing online content and services, they helped bring the internet into mainstream use. Many people’s first experience of the internet was through the lens of these early online services.

As the World Wide Web began to take off in the mid-1990s, the landscape started to shift. The open, decentralized nature of the Web would eventually supersede the walled gardens of early online services. However, the legacy of Prodigy, AOL, and similar services can be seen in the social and interactive nature of the Web that we know today.

The Birth of the Web: Mosaic and Beyond

The true turning point for the Web came in 1993 with the release of the Mosaic web browser. Developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Mosaic was the first browser to display images inline with text, making the Web much more visually appealing and intuitive to use.

Part 1: Web 1.0 – The Static Web

Back in the early 1990s, the web was a very different place. It consisted mainly of static HTML pages that were created by webmasters and hosted on servers. If you wanted to publish content on the web, you needed to have some technical skills – like knowing how to write HTML code and upload files via FTP.

There was no such thing as social media or user-generated content. Websites were primarily informational, consisting of text and images. Interaction was limited to hyperlinking between pages and maybe filling out the occasional form.

Some of the most popular websites in the Web 1.0 era were directories and portals like Yahoo!, which helped users navigate the rapidly growing web by curating and categorizing links. Search engines like AltaVista and Lycos also emerged to help people find relevant content among the sea of web pages.

E-commerce also got its start in the Web 1.0 days, with early movers like Amazon and eBay launching in the mid-90s. But online shopping was still a niche activity – most people were hesitant to enter their credit card details on a website.

Under the hood, the technology powering Web 1.0 was pretty basic by today’s standards. Websites were largely built using static HTML, maybe with a sprinkling of JavaScript for simple effects like hover states. Server-side scripting languages like PHP and Perl were used for things like processing form submissions. Databases, if used at all, were mostly just for storing things like user credentials.

Overall, Web 1.0 was a simpler time. The web was more like a library than the vibrant, social, app-like experience it is today. But it laid the groundwork for the interactive web that was to come.

Part 2: Web 2.0 – The Social Web

Around the turn of the millennium, the web began to evolve. Advances in web technologies like Ajax and the proliferation of broadband internet access paved the way for a more dynamic, interactive web. This era became known as Web 2.0.

One of the defining characteristics of Web 2.0 was the rise of user-generated content and social media. Blogs, powered by easy-to-use publishing platforms like Blogger and WordPress, gave everyone a voice on the web. Social networking sites like Myspace and later Facebook allowed people to connect and share online. Collaborative projects like Wikipedia harnessed the power of crowdsourcing to build vast repositories of knowledge.

With Web 2.0, the web became more participatory. Users were no longer just consumers of content but creators as well. Websites evolved to be more app-like and interactive, with features like real-time notifications and smooth, Ajax-powered interfaces.

A key enabler of Web 2.0 was the concept of the “web as a platform.” Instead of just serving static pages, web servers became application servers, providing backend functionality for frontend web apps through APIs. This shift was exemplified by web services like Google Maps and Flickr, which allowed developers to integrate their functionality into other websites and applications.

The rise of mobile smartphones in the late 2000s brought Web 2.0 to our pockets. Mobile apps, which often interfaced with web services on the backend, became a new way to interact with online content and services.

It was also during the Web 2.0 era that cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin emerged. Launched in 2009, Bitcoin was the first decentralized digital currency, enabling peer-to-peer transactions without the need for intermediaries like banks. Bitcoin’s underlying blockchain technology would go on to inspire a wave of innovation in decentralized systems.

While Bitcoin itself didn’t rely heavily on web technologies (it’s primarily a peer-to-peer network protocol), the rise of cryptocurrencies was very much in the spirit of Web 2.0’s emphasis on decentralization and user empowerment. Over the 2010s, hundreds of other cryptocurrencies (often referred to as “altcoins”) launched, each with its own unique features and use cases.

The Web 2.0 era represented a significant evolution of the web into a more dynamic, social, and app-like experience. But as the 2010s progressed, some began to question the increasing centralization of the web around major platforms like Google, Facebook, and Amazon. This set the stage for the next evolution of the web – Web 3.0.

Part 3: Web 3.0 – The Decentralized Web

In recent years, there’s been a growing movement towards what’s being called Web 3.0 or the decentralized web. The key idea behind Web 3.0 is to shift power back to users from the centralized platforms that came to dominate Web 2.0.

In the Web 3.0 vision, users will own their data and digital identities, rather than ceding control to tech giants. Interactions and transactions will be peer-to-peer, mediated by blockchain-based decentralized apps (dApps) rather than centralized intermediaries. The economic model will shift from advertising and data harvesting to new paradigms enabled by cryptocurrencies and tokens.

A key enabling technology for Web 3.0 is blockchain, the decentralized ledger technology underlying cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. Blockchains provide a way to record data and transactions in a distributed, tamper-proof way, without the need for centralized control.

Ethereum, launched in 2015, took the blockchain concept a step further by introducing programmable smart contracts. This allowed developers to create decentralized applications (dApps) with complex logic. Imagine a social network where your data is stored on a blockchain rather than company servers, or a ride-sharing app that connects drivers and riders directly without a company like Uber in the middle. That’s the kind of thing that’s possible with Ethereum and other smart contract platforms.

Another key concept in Web 3.0 is decentralized storage. Projects like IPFS and Filecoin aim to distribute data storage across networks of computers, rather than in centralized data centers controlled by a single company. This makes data more resilient and resistant to censorship.

Web 3.0 also envisions new models for digital identity. Self-sovereign identity systems let individuals control their personal data and digital identities, rather than relying on centralized identity providers like Google or Facebook. Decentralized identity standards are emerging to enable this.

All of these decentralized technologies are still fairly new and are in active development. The Web 3.0 ecosystem is bustling with innovation, with new projects and ideas emerging all the time.

However, Web 3.0 also faces significant challenges. User experience is a major hurdle – interacting with blockchain-based systems is often complex compared to traditional web apps. Scalability and performance are also issues that developers are working hard to address. And many of the economic models around tokens and cryptocurrencies are still unproven.

Despite these challenges, the vision of a more decentralized, user-centric web is compelling to many. As the shortcomings of the centralized Web 2.0 model become more apparent – from data breaches to misinformation to platform lock-in – the appeal of a new paradigm grows.

Whether Web 3.0 will truly disrupt the established order of the web remains to be seen. But it’s clear that we’re in the midst of an important evolution in web technologies and paradigms. Just as Web 2.0 emerged as a more dynamic, social extension of Web 1.0, Web 3.0 is building on the foundation of the web to enable new possibilities for interaction, value exchange, and user empowerment.

As we stand on the cusp of this new era of the web, it’s an exciting time to be a user, a developer, or simply an observer of this transformative technology. The web has come a long way from its humble origins, and it seems clear that its evolution is far from over. Here’s to the next chapter in the web’s amazing story.

Further Reading

Here’s a bibliography with various sources that could serve as further reading on the history and development of the internet and the Web. I’ve included hyperlinks where possible:

  1. Abbate, J. (2000). Inventing the Internet. MIT Press.
  2. Berners-Lee, T. (2000). Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web. HarperCollins.
  3. Cailliau, R., & Ashman, H. (1999). Hypertext in the Web — a history. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 31(4es), 35-es.
  4. Castells, M. (2001). The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society. Oxford University Press.
  5. Cohen-Almagor, R. (2011). Internet History. International Journal of Technoethics, 2(2), 45-64.
  6. Hafner, K., & Lyon, M. (1998). Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet. Simon & Schuster.
  7. Internet Hall of Fame. (n.d.). Internet Hall of Fame Inductees.
  8. Leiner, B. M., Cerf, V. G., Clark, D. D., Kahn, R. E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D. C., … & Wolff, S. (2009). A brief history of the Internet. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 39(5), 22-31.
  9. Naughton, J. (2016). The evolution of the Internet: from military experiment to General Purpose Technology. Journal of Cyber Policy, 1(1), 5-28.
  10. Salus, P. H. (1995). Casting the Net: From ARPANET to Internet and Beyond. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.
  11. Internet Society. (n.d.). Internet History.
  12. World Wide Web Foundation. (n.d.). History of the Web.
  13. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). (n.d.). A Little History of the World Wide Web.
  14. Ziewitz, M., & Brown, I. (2013). A prehistory of internet governance. Research handbook on governance of the Internet, 3-26. Edward Elgar Publishing.

These sources provide a mix of historical accounts, technical descriptions, and reflections on the societal impact of the internet and the Web. They should offer a solid starting point for further exploration of this fascinating history.

Author: OXZO

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